2021, Volume 1, Issue 2
The relationship between perceived freedom, leisure involvement, and happiness of individuals participating in physical activities
Emrah Serdar1, Duygu Harmandar Demirel2
1Faculty of Sports Science , Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa
2Necmettin Erbakan University
Author for correspondence: Emrah Serdar; Faculty of Sports Science , Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa; email: email@example.com
Background: This study is aimed to determine the relationship between the perceived freedom, involvement and happiness of individuals participating in physical activities.
Material and Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 523 members. The Perceived Freedom in Leisure Scale, the Leisure Involvement Scale and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form were used as data collection tools. In analysing the data, independent t-test, ANOVA, MANOVA and Pearson Correlation analysis were used.
Results: Independent t-Test results determined a significant difference between OHQ-SF scores according to the participants’ gender. MANOVA analysis result showed that the main effect of the gender variable on the sub-dimensions of LIS was significant, and there was a difference in all sub-dimensions. The main effect of marital status on the sub-dimensions of LIS was significant, while there was a positive and low-level relationship between age and OHQ-SF.
Conclusions: The levels of OHQ-SF, PFLS-25 and LIS differ depending on the individuals’ socio-demographic characteristics. Moreover, there was a positive and low level of relationship between OHQ-SF and PFLS-25 and LIS, and a positive and low level of correlation between PFLS-25.
Key words: Oxford happiness, perceived freedom in leisure, leisure involvement, physical activities