2019, Volume 11, Issue 4
Pre-performance rituals and anxiety among young Polish and Ukrainian football players
1Department of Psychology, University of Physical Education in Krakow
Author for correspondence: Joanna Basiaga-Pasternak; Department of Psychology, University of Physical Education in Krakow; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. Rituals and superstitions are also present in sport, as a part of sport competition . Rituals, usually conceived as superstitions, have survived among people. They comprise magical thinking, belief in specific sayings, ritualized behavior, specific interpretation of events . They are practiced to reduce anxiety. The purpose of the study was to identify the most common pre-competitive superstition rituals among Polish and Ukrainian football players and establish the relationship between superstitions and anxiety.
Material and Methods: Participants were 100 Polish and 50 Ukrainian adolescent football players. The Rituals in Sport and the Sport Anxiety Scale were used.
Results: The results have shown that most common rituals used by football players are superstitions and elements of pre-performance routine. Athletes used religious and personal rituals to increase their self-confidence. Some respondents exhibit ritualized behavior which might be considered as an element of pre-performance routine.
Conclusions: The study found that as the level of pre-performance anxiety increased, the level of rituals also increased.
Key words: rituals in sport, pre-performance anxiety, young football players